B-Money A scheme for a group of untraceable digital pseudonyms to pay each other with money and to enforce contracts amongst themselves without outside help. concept references

Bitcoin A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System that prevents double spending using the hash-based proof-of-work driven network transactions, that are authenticated by global consensus. concept references papers

The Normal Distribution The normal distribution, also known as the Gaussian or standard normal distribution, is the probability distribution that plots all of its values in a symmetrical fashion, and most of the results are situated around the probability's mean. concept mathematics probability

Random Projection in Dimensionality Reduction The dimensions and distribution of random projections matrices are controlled so as to preserve the pairwise distances between any two samples of the dataset. concept machine-learning mathematics

Discounted Cumulative Gain Discounted cumulative gain (DCG) is a measure of ranking quality. In information retrieval, it is often used to measure effectiveness of web search engine. concept machine-learning mathematics

Basics of Linguistics The scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of grammar, syntax, and phonetics. concept references

Blockchain A blockchain, originally termed as block chain, is a continuously growing distributed list of records, called blocks, that are linked using cryptographic security. concept references