Deep Learning without Poor Local Minima This paper proves a conjecture about deep neural networks published in 1989 and addresses an open problem announced at COLT 2015. machine-learning mathematics papers theorems

Backpropagation Derivation The post delves into the mathematics of how backpropagation is defined. It has its roots in partial derivatives and is easily understandable andrew-ng machine-learning mathematics

Congruence and Modular Arithmetic If two numbers have the property that their difference is integrally divisible by a number (i.e., is an integer), then they are said to be "congruent modulo". mathematics number-system what-is-mathematics

The Mysterious Primes Mathematicians have tried in vain to this day to discover some order in the sequence of prime numbers, a mystery into which the human mind will possibly never penetrate. mathematics number-system what-is-mathematics

Mathematical Induction Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique used to prove a given statement about any well-ordered set. mathematics number-system what-is-mathematics theorems

What is Number System ? A number system is a way to represent numbers. We are used to using the base-10 number system, which is also called decimal. mathematics number-system what-is-mathematics

Normal Equation Given a matrix equation, the normal equation is one which minimizes the sum of the square differences between the left and right sides machine-learning mathematics andrew-ng

Linear Algebra Review Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning vector spaces and linear mappings between such spaces machine-learning mathematics andrew-ng

The Normal Distribution The normal distribution, also known as the Gaussian or standard normal distribution, is the probability distribution that plots all of its values in a symmetrical fashion, and most of the results are situated around the probability's mean. concept mathematics probability